Acne is the most common skin condition in the United States.
Although it's common, accurate information about acne can be
scarce. This can make it difficult to get clearer skin. The
information on this site can help you understand acne and how to
successfully treat it.
Why treat acne?
Myths about acne are as common as the skin problem. One common
myth is that you have to let acne run its course.
Dermatologists know that letting acne runs its course is not
always the best advice.
Without treatment, dark spots and permanent scars can appear on
the skin as acne clears.
Treating acne often boosts a person’s self-esteem.
Many effective treatments are available.
More women getting acne
Not just teens have acne. A growing number of women have acne in
their 30s, 40s, 50s, and beyond. Dermatologists are not sure why
this is happening. But dermatologists understand that adult acne
can be particularly frustrating.
Images used with permission of the
American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic
Acne: Signs and symptoms
Many people think that acne is just pimples. But a person who
has acne can have any of these blemishes:
Pustules (what many people call pimples).
Acne can appear on the back, chest, neck, shoulders, upper arms
Acne can cause more than blemishes. Studies show that people who
have acne can have:
Low self-esteem : Many people who have acne say
that their acne makes them feel bad about themselves. Because of
their acne, they do not want to be with friends. They miss school
and work. Grades can slide, and absenteeism can become a problem
because of their acne.
Depression : Many people who have acne suffer
from more than low self-esteem. Acne can lead to a medical
condition called depression. The depression can be so bad that
people think about what it would be like to commit suicide. Many
studies have found that teens who believe that they have “bad” acne
were likely to think about committing suicide.
Dark spots on the skin : These spots appear
when the acne heals. It can take months or years for dark spots to
Scars (permanent): People who get acne cysts
and nodules often see scars when the acne clears. You can prevent
these scars. Be sure to see a dermatologist for treatment if you
get acne early — between 8 and 12 years old. If someone in your
family had acne cysts and nodules, you also should see a
dermatologist if you get acne. Treating acne before cysts and
nodules appear can prevent scars.
Acne: Who gets and causes
Who gets acne?
If you have a bad case of acne, you may feel like you are the
only one. But many people have acne. It is the most common skin
problem in the United States. About 40 to 50 million Americans have
acne at any one time.
Most people who have acne are teenagers or young adults, but
acne can occur at any age. Newborn babies can get acne. Men and
women get acne. Some women get acne when they reach middle age.
What causes acne?
Acne appears when a pore in our skin clogs. This clog begins
with dead skin cells. Normally, dead skin cells rise to surface of
the pore, and the body sheds the cells. When the body starts to
make lots of sebum (see-bum), oil that keeps our skin from drying
out, the dead skin cells can stick together inside the pore.
Instead of rising to the surface, the cells become trapped inside
Sometimes bacteria that live on our skin, p. acnes ,
also get inside the clogged pore. Inside the pore, the bacteria
have a perfect environment for multiplying very quickly. With loads
of bacteria inside, the pore becomes inflamed (red and swollen). If
the inflammation goes deep into the skin, an acne cyst or nodule
Acne: Diagnosis and treatment
How do dermatologists diagnose acne?
To diagnose acne, a dermatologist will first examine your skin
to make sure you have acne. Other skin conditions can look like
acne. If you have acne, the dermatologist will:
Grade the acne. Grade 1 is mild acne. Grade 4 is severe
Note what type, or types, of acne appear on your skin.
How do dermatologists treat acne?
Today, there are many effective acne treatments. This does not
mean that every acne treatment works for everyone who has acne. But
it does mean that virtually every case of acne can be
People who have mild acne have a few blemishes. They may have
whiteheads, blackheads, papules, and/or pustules (aka pimples).
Many people can treat mild acne with products that you can buy
without a prescription. A product containing benzoyl peroxide or
salicylic acid often clears the skin. This does not mean that the
acne will clear overnight.
Despite the claims, acne treatment does not work overnight.
At-home treatment requires 4-8 weeks to see improvement. Once acne
clears, you must continue to treat the skin to prevent
When to see a dermatologist
If you have a lot of acne, cysts, or nodules, a medicine that
you can buy without a prescription may not work. If you want to see
clearer skin, you should see a dermatologist. Dermatologists offer
the following types of treatment:
Acne treatment that you apply to the skin :
Most acne treatments are applied to the skin. Your dermatologist
may call this topical treatment. There are many topical acne
treatments. Some topicals help kill the bacteria. Others work on
reducing the oil. The topical medicine may contain a retinoid,
prescription-strength benzoyl peroxide, antibiotic, or even
salicylic acid. Your dermatologist will determine what you
Acne treatment that works throughout the body :
Medicine that works throughout the body may be necessary when you
have red, swollen types of acne. This type of treatment is usually
necessary to treat acne cysts and nodules. Your dermatologist may
prescribe one or more of these:
Antibiotics (helps to kill bacteria and reduce
Birth control pills and other medicine that works on hormones
(can be helpful for women).
Isotretinoin (the only treatment that works on all that causes
Procedures that treat acne : Your dermatologist
may treat your acne with a procedure that can be performed during
an office visit. These treatments include:
Lasers and other light therapies: These devices reduce the
p. acnes bacteria. Your dermatologist can determine
whether this type of treatment can be helpful.
Chemical peels: You cannot buy the chemical peels that
dermatologists use. Dermatologists use chemical peels to treat 2
types of acne — blackheads and papules.
Acne removal: Your dermatologist may perform a procedure called
“drainage and extraction” to remove a large acne cyst. This
procedure helps when the cyst does not respond to medicine. It also
helps ease the pain and the chance that the cyst will leave a scar.
If you absolutely have to get rid of a cyst quickly, your
dermatologist may inject the cyst with medicine.
Waiting for acne to clear on its own can be frustrating. Without
treatment, acne can cause permanent scars, low self-esteem,
depression, and anxiety.
To avoid these possible outcomes, dermatologists recommend that
people treat acne. When the skin clears, treatment should continue.
Treatment prevents new breakouts. Your dermatologist can tell you
when you no longer need to treat acne to prevent breakouts.
Acne: Tips for managing
You can reduce your acne by following these skin care tips from
Wash twice a day and after sweating. Perspiration, especially
when wearing a hat or helmet, can make acne worse, so wash your
skin as soon as possible after sweating.
Use your fingertips to apply a gentle, non-abrasive cleanser.
Using a washcloth, mesh sponge or anything else can irritate the
Be gentle with your skin. Use gentle products, such as those
that are alcohol-free. Do not use products that irritate your skin,
which may include astringents, toners and exfoliants. Dry, red skin
makes acne appear worse.
Scrubbing your skin can make acne worse. Avoid the temptation
to scrub your skin.
Rinse with lukewarm water.
Shampoo regularly. If you have oily hair, shampoo daily.
Let your skin heal naturally. If you pick, pop or squeeze your
acne, your skin will take longer to clear and you increase the risk
of getting acne scars.
Keep your hands off your face. Touching your skin throughout
the day can cause flare-ups.
Stay out of the sun and tanning beds. Tanning damages you skin.
In addition, some acne medications make the skin very sensitive to
ultraviolet (UV) light, which you get from both the sun and indoor
Using tanning beds increases your risk for melanoma, the
deadliest form of skin cancer, by 75 percent.
Consult a dermatologist if:
Your acne makes you shy or embarrassed.
The products you've tried have not worked.
Your acne is leaving scars or darkening your skin.
Today, virtually every case of acne can be successfully treated.
Dermatologists can help treat existing acne, prevent new breakouts
and reduce your chance of developing scars. If you have questions
or concerns about caring for your skin, you should make an
appointment to see a dermatologist.
Hidradenitis suppurativa - A skin disease called hidradenitis
suppurativa (HS) can look like everyday acne. It is a long-term
skin disease, which often goes undiagnosed. If you have acne in
your armpit, on your groin, or under your breasts, you might have